Ap Biology Essay on Atp

697 Words Mar 2nd, 2011 3 Pages
a) The ATP molecule is composed of three components. At the centre is a sugar molecule, ribose (the same sugar that forms the basis of RNA). Attached to one side of this is a base (a group consisting of linked rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms); in this case the base is adenine. The other side of the sugar is attached to a string of three bonded phosphate groups. These phosphates are the key to the activity of ATP. Especially, the bond between the last phosphate and second to last phosphate is very unstable and when broken releases a very large amount of energy, which is essential to all life processes.
b) First, chemiosmosis occurs across the inner membrane of the mitochondria which is called the cristae. Basically, H+ ions are pumped
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For nerve cells this is essential for action potentials to carry charge along an axon.

Glycolysis is a biological process in which 2 ATP, 2 pyruvate , and 2 NADH are produced. Ironically, 2 ATP are necessary to start this biological process. In the first step of glycolysis, an ATP attaches one of its phosphates to a molecule of glucose to produce glucose-6-phophate (G6P). The newly formed G6P rearranges to form a molecule named fructose-6-phosphate (F6P). Another molecule of ATP is required for the next step, which adds another phosphate group to produce fructose 1,6-biphosphate. Eventually, the reaction produces the 2 ATP, 2 pyruvate, and 2 NADH that are essential for all life processes.
d) An energy pyramid’s shape shows how the amount of useful energy that enters each level — chemical energy in the form of food — decreases as it is used by the organisms in that level. How does this happen? Recall that cell respiration “burns” food to release its energy, and in doing so, produces ATP, which carries some of the energy as well as heat, which carries the rest. ATP is then used to fuel countless life processes. The consequence is that even though a lot of energy may be taken in at any level, the energy that ends up being stored there – which is the food available to the next level — is far less. Scientists have calculated that an average of 90% of the energy entering each step of the food chain is “lost” this way (although the total amount in the system remains

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