Bio 115 Study Guide Exam 1 Essay

1528 Words Oct 18th, 2012 7 Pages
Bio 115 Exam 1 Study Guide

These topics will be on the exam.

▪ What are the tenets of cell theory? • Cells are the basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms. • Cells are both distinct entities and building blocks of more complex organisms. OR • All living organisms are composed of one or more cells, Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism, and Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells. OR • All cells come from preexisting cells. • All cells are similar in chemical composition. • Most of the chemical reactions of life occur in aqueous solution within cells. •
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Carbohydrates: form giant molecules by linking together chemically similar sugar monomers (monosaccharide’s) to form polysaccharides.
Lipids: form large structures from a limited set of smaller molecules, but in this case noncovalent forces maintain the interactions between the lipid monomers ▪ Primary vs. secondary vs. tertiary vs. quaternary protein structure
Primary: chain of amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds
Secondary: hydrogen bonds create α-helices (hair) and β-pleated sheets (nails) which provide flexibility in strength
Tertiary structure: hydrogen bonds and disulfide twist things around into more complex shapes (lysozyme in digestion)
Quaternary: four subunits of tertiary structures bond together (heme in hemoglobin in blood) also affected by temperature, pH, and salt concentration ▪ Storage polysaccharides in plants and animals ▪ Structural polysaccharides in plants and animals ▪ Differences between triglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids, and steroids
Triglycerides: A simple lipid in which three fatty acids are combined with one molecule of glycerol.
Phospholipids: A lipid containing a phosphate group; an important constituent of cellular membranes.
Steroids: Any of a family of lipids whose multiple rings share carbons. The steroid cholesterol is an

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