How to Treat High Prolactin Levels Essay
Because dopamine is the chemical that normally inhibits prolactin secretion, doctors may treat prolactinoma with the dopamine agonists bromocriptine (Parlodel) or cabergoline (Dostinex). Agonists are drugs that act like a naturally occurring substance. These drugs shrink the tumor and return prolactin levels to normal in approximately 80 percent of patients. Both drugs have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Bromocriptine is the only dopamine agonist approved for the treatment of infertility. This drug has been in use longer than cabergoline and has a well-established safety record.
Nausea and dizziness are possible side effects of bromocriptine. To avoid …show more content…
Recent studies suggest prolactin levels are more likely to remain normal after discontinuing long-term cabergoline therapy than after discontinuing bromocriptine. More research is needed to confirm these findings.
In people taking cabergoline or bromocriptine to treat Parkinson’s disease at doses more than 10 times higher than those used for prolactinomas, heart valve damage has been reported. Rare cases of valve damage have been reported in people taking low doses of cabergoline to treat hyperprolactinemia. Before starting these medications, the doctor will order an echocardiogram. An echocardiogram is a sonogram of the heart that checks the heart valves and heart function.
Because limited information exists about the risks of long-term, low-dose cabergoline use, doctors generally prescribe the lowest effective dose and periodically reassess the need for continuing therapy. People taking cabergoline who develop symptoms of shortness of breath or swelling of the feet should promptly notify their physician because these may be signs of heart valve damage.
Surgery to remove all or part of the tumor should only be considered if medical therapy cannot be tolerated or if it fails to reduce prolactin levels, restore normal reproduction and pituitary function, and