Microbiology Exam 1 Review Essay

3117 Words Apr 23rd, 2016 13 Pages
BIOL 3332 Spring 2016
Unit 1/Exam 1 Review (Chapters 1, 3, 6, and part of 4)
A. Chapter 1 Microbial Life: Origin & Discovery
a. Impact of microbiology on our lives
i. Ecology, public health, biotechnology, knowledge of cell biology and genetics
b. Defining what a microbe is: * a microbe is a living organism that requires a microscope to be seen
c. Where did microbes come from? Evolutionary origins, fossil evidence; prokaryotic cells  eukaryotic cells * bacteria is the oldest known life form. Oldest datable geographical evidence was 3.8 bya * eukayotic cells arose from divergent prokaryotic lines. Endosymbioses came from mitochondria and chloroplasts. Unicellular types came from simple multicellular forms
…show more content…
f. Historical perspective of microbiology
i. Exploitation of microbial activity for different processes ii. Medical: infectious disease/antibiotics/vaccination iii. Advances in biotechnology, agriculture, food, energy/environment, fighting disease iv. Microscopy (Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek); Spontaneous generation * Robert Hooke: first microscopist to publish a systematic study of the world as seen under a microscope * Built the first compound microscope. Was able to observe biological materials such as nematode “vinegar eels,” mites, etc. * Was the first to observe distinct units of living material, which he called “cells.” * Antonie van Leeuwenhoek: first individual to observe single-celled microbes * “small animals” * Spontaneous generation: the theory that living creatures such as maggots could arise spontaneously, without parental organisms
v. Pasteur’s contributions: including refuting spontaneous generation & Germ Theory of Fermentation * Pasteur reveals the biochemical basis of microbial growth * Discovered the fundamental chemical property of chirality. * Discovered that fermentation (a process by which microbes gain energy by converting sugars into alcohol), is actually caused by living yeast, a single celled fungus. * Pasteur disproved that lack of oxygen was reason for failure of spontaneous generation in Spallanzani’s flasks. Showed providing oxygen did

Related Documents