# Essay about The Impact of Mathematics on the Physical Sciences

Intro

Many great mathematicians of the past had an impact on physical sciences. This paper will discuss the historical background, respective times, and contemporary and modern societal contributions of three of those mathematicians: Archimedes of Syracuse, Isaac Newton, and Leonhard Euler.

Archimedes of Syracuse

Archimedes was born in a Greek city-state of Syracuse, Sicily in 287 BC. He was killed during a Roman incursion in 212 BC during the Second Punic War. Archimedes was purportedly largely responsible for the defense of Syracuse as they held the Romans off for two years with the use of his war machines.

Most of the information we currently have about Archimedes is anecdotal.

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Archimedes¡¯ treatises include On Plane Equilibriums, Quadrature of the Parabola, On the Sphere and Cylinder, On Spirals, On Conoids and Spheroids, On Floating Bodies, Measurement of a Circle, and The Sandreckoner. In 1899 a 10th century manuscript known as a palimpsest, which contained a Greek copy of four of Archimedes¡¯ works including The Method, was identified to be part of the Library of the Holy Sepulchre in Istanbul. In this work, Archimedes explained how he discovered his geometrical results. There are still many works of Archimedes, which are currently lost from antiquity. Some of his treatises were translated into Arabic in the eighth and ninth centuries, but the greatest influence of Archimedes on later mathematicians was not seen until the 16th and 17th centuries when some of his works were