Essay about The Molecule Of A Sugar Molecule

1178 Words Aug 5th, 2016 null Page
The ATP molecule consists of a sugar molecule (ribose) attached to a base that is composed of carbon and nitrogen atoms (adenine). Attached to the other side of the ribose are three phosphate groups (a phosphate group consists of one phosphorus atom bonded to 4 oxygen atoms). *
ATP Hydrolysis Powers Cellular Work

The phosphate bonds in ATP (adenosine triphosphate) can be broken down by water. When ATP loses a phosphate group in water, this releases energy and creates the products ADP (adenosine diphosphate with two phosphate groups) and an inorganic phosphate. This is an exergonic reaction since energy is released and the reactants (ATP + Water) have a higher energy than the products (ADP+ inorganic phosphate). The hydrolysis (breakdown in water) of ATP releases energy because all three phosphate groups of ATP are negatively charged and the like charges repel each other creating an instability in the ATP molecule. This instability causes the ATP molecule to break down releasing energy in an exergonic reaction.
The energy released from ATP hydrolysis can be used to power endergonic reactions (absorbs energy from surroundings and gains more energy than it releases) by the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to some other molecule such as the reactant in a reaction. ATP hydrolysis powers cellular work since ATP hydrolysis leads to a change in a protein’s shape and its ability to bind to another molecule. When ATP is bonded noncovalently to a motor protein (protein that…

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