Essay on Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan

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Introduction and Summary
The story of the trouble in the Sudan began with the story of the trouble in Africa itself, which started over 600 years ago from about 1400 A.D. when Africa began paying the price for the misfortunes of the New World, the Old World, and especially Western Europe. In the last fifty years, the continent has had its "independence" from their colonizers. However, we know that domestic colonialism exists, imposed upon the continent by Africans themselves.
The Sudan, located in eastern Africa, has a population of approximately twenty-five million people within one million square miles. This makes the Sudan the largest land area in the continent of Africa. The southern third of Sudan, which occupies a larger
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The two have waged war in total disregard of the welfare of the civilian population and in violation of almost every rule of war applicable in an internal armed conflict. A few of the other offenses by the government and rebel parties include:
· Indiscriminate aerial bombardment of southern population centers;
· Scorched earth tactics around villages that ultimately displace or kill the civilians.
· Use of torture and forcible conversion to another religion.
· Restriction of movement in garrison towns even in times of food scarcity.
· Killing civilians, lack of due process, inhumane treatment, abductions, etc (2).
Background
     Before "independence" in 1956, the British under the Anglo-Egyptian condominium government administered southern Sudan separately from the north. Armed conflict between the northern and southern parts of Sudan began in 1955, before independence. The conflict was punctuated by an autonomy agreement in 1972 that ended the first civil war between southern separatist forces and the central government, then headed by Jaafar Nimieri, a military dictator. In 1983, the second civil war began, and the autonomy has been broken numerous times by the government (19).
     The second civil war was built on the shoulders of the first with the SPLA forming in 1983 in Ethiopia from Anya-Nya II groups and Sudan army mutineers, who were from the 105 Battalion stationed

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