Alternative Methods of Weed Control to Reduce Negative Impacts of Glyphosate

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Genetically modified crops are used more than landrace crops in agriculture, specifically glyphosate resistant crops. Glyphosate’s usage has increased, due to the main feature of “no run-off”. This seemingly perfect solution to farmer’s weed control problem has negative impacts not only towards the environment, but also to living organism’s health. Glyphosate is increasing plant’s susceptibility to diseases, which in turn will reduce crop yields. Glyphosate also decreases the amount of nutrients in crops, causing a stunt in growth and also a decrease in yields. The herbicide is also a threat to human health, resulting from the residue left on the crops that are eaten. These human risks include Celiac Disease, damage to cells, and …show more content…
ESP is from where aromatic amino acids and vitamins, hormones, and other essential plant metabolites are derived. Since phosphoenol pyruvate and ESP have similar structures, glyphosate is able to bind to the substrate binding site of EPSPS, which blocks its activity, including its import to the chloroplast. The active site of EPSPS is primarily the same in plants, glyphosate works on a wide variety of weeds. The inhibition of the shikimic acid pathway’s function, leads to a deficiency in aromatic amino acids, causing the plants to die of starvation. Glyphosate has a low water solubility, so farmers generally mix it with ammonium sulfate, under certain conditions, and water (Boerboom et al. 2010). This makes it easier to spray on to crops and makes the plant absorption rate higher. Research has been conducted and confirmed that glyphosate has increased health risks on humans and other living organisms. Specific diseases and risks that are linked with the use of glyphosate include Celiac disease, obesity, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, cell death, and nutrient loss. Humans are exposed to glyphosate via the residues left on the crops that are used as food and feed, and have different affects depending on the amount of glyphosate in their system and how they react to the herbicide. Celiac disease, which is often related to gut bacteria, is due to a mutation in the cytochrome P450 enzyme (Samsel and Senneff 2013). The CYP enzymes

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