Carbon sinks are found when there is a collection of carbon dioxide within a reservoir. Both, the terrestrial and aquatic systems, can act as natural carbon sinks, as can the atmosphere, where the collections of carbon dioxide as well as carbon dioxide emissions are high. The efficiency of these sinks has been declining since the 1990’s (Canadell et al. 2007). Approximately, 50% of carbon dioxide emissions are collected in the terrestrial and oceanic sinks (Ritschard 1992), which are detrimental to the ecosystem. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have been significantly small compared to the anthropogenic emissions when it comes to substantiality (Canadell et al. 2007). This is because the natural carbon sinks of the ocean remove some of
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The amount of carbon deposited into the water from the land systems is dependent on the climate changes such as temperature and amount of ice coverage (Oswood et al. 1996). The higher in latitude the body of water is, the more susceptible it is to anthropogenic disturbances that effect the terrestrial ecosystems (Oswood et al. 1996). The majority of the carbon dioxide that enters into a water body is transformed to carbonate and bicarbonate (Orr and Sarmiento 1992). Less than 1% of the carbon dioxide that enters the ocean remains as such (Orr and Sarmiento 1992).
Carbon dioxide collection has significantly increased over since the ice age times (Ritschard 1992). Based on cores from the ice age, atmospheric carbon dioxide was approximately 180-200 parts per million, while before industrial evolution, the atmospheric carbon dioxide had increased to approximately 280 parts per million (Ritschard 1992). In 2011, the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide had increased to approximately 385 parts per million (Chung et al. 2011). In the last 100 years, this growth has becoming increasingly worse (Chung et al. 2011). This is evidence that the levels of carbon dioxide that are currently present in the atmosphere can majorly be attributed to mankind and the introduction of industrial activity. These number indicate that the most likely situation to occur in the next 100 years is a two-three time increase in the carbon dioxide