E.H. Carr would have described Hans Morgenthau’s work as too much realism and too little utopianism to be truly valuable. In evidence of this point this essay will examine exerts from Carr’s The Twenty Years’ Crisis: 1919-1939 and Hans Morgenthau’s Politics Among Nations. The essay will centre around three key themes, the role of utopianism and its relation to realism, realism as a commitment to life as we know it and the concept of value. Further to this point the essay will consider to whom Morgenthau’s work would be considered valuable, whether it be for the discipline or for those entrusted with state protection and diplomacy. It will be concluded that in line with Carr’s thinking, Morgenthau simply forgot the importance of utopianism
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10). Thus there must be balance between the two. The belief in complete realism denies the chance and possibility of change while a commitment to complete utopianism lacks an understanding of the very reality, utopian thought seeks to change. Through this realisation Carr noted that “there is a stage where realism is the necessary corrective to the exuberance of utopianism, just as in other periods utopianism must be invoked to counteract the barrenness of realism” (Carr p. 10). Utopian thought served a purpose in the development of the discipline; it helped to establish its principle aims. While pure utopianism is too naive a commitment to develop the solutions to ending war and developing peaceful interactions between nation states, utopianism allowed a line of thought to develop wherein theory was expounded to be able to change the world. The aspirations of which cannot be found in a line of enquiry which “places emphasis on the acceptance of facts and on the analysis of their causes and consequences” (Carr p. 10).
Morgenthau tragically accepted that human nature is flawed but is uniquely flawed in that humans are endowed with the mental faculties for reason. Thus we recognise our horribleness invoking the Augustinian nature of man; humans are awful and spiritual at the same time. It is through this line of human understanding that Morgenthau in his Six Principles of Political Realism succumbs to the reality of the world and as such