Essay on Immunological Cures for Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

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The focus for finding an immunological cure for diabetes mellitus type 1 should be directed to prevent maturation or cause inactivation of autoreactive T cells to halt the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Inactivation of the autoreactive T cells can be accomplished in two ways. First, antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, that present auto antigens can be modified to prevent maturation or expression of co-stimulatory receptor. Secondly, the T cell can remain in the naïve state or be inactivated after activation by an antigen presenting cell. Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is categorized into type 1, insulin dependent, and type 2, insulin resistant, and the focus will be on the former. Type 1diabetes …show more content…
Dendritic cells that are treated with oligonucleotide decoys specific for NFkB transcription prevents the dendritic cell from maturing and prevents co-stimulatory receptor function, resulting in a significant reduction in the onset of diabetes.4 Treatment of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with direct inhibition of co-stimulatory targets CD40, CD80 and CD86 on dendritic cells by antisense oligodeoxyribosenucleotides (AS-OND) prevented diabetes and could reverse the onset of diabetes. 4 This could be a plausible cure because without all required co-stimulation molecules immune cells do not activate or mature. Currently the Food and Drug Administration has approved a phase I clinical trial for adults that have been insulin requiring for at least 5 years. Dendritic cells are being obtained from the patient, grown in vitro and treated with AS-OND.3 The treated dendritic cells are then injected back into the patient’s body near the site of the pancreas where the dendritic cells will migrate to the lymph node and interrupt the cycle that maintains islet inflammation by the lack of co-stimulation from the dendritic cells to T cells.3 However, this experimental procedure is more successful when given at the onset of the disease. Also, modifying dendritic cells has the chance that type 1 diabetes autoimmunity could go from organ specific to

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