Essay about Red Blood Cells

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Animal Cells
Red Blood Cells

Red Blood Cells (RBCs) are also known as erythrocytes. There are up to 4.2 - 6.2 million RBCs in a cubic millimetre of blood. They specialize in transporting oxygen around the body. As a result of this RBCs are small and have a biconcave shape to increase their surface are to optimize the amount of oxygen that diffuses across their cell membrane. As well as this RBCs have no organelles other than a cell membrane and cytoskeleton (in mammalian RBCs).
After oxygen diffuses from the alveoli of the lung into the RBC, it attaches itself to the main protein in RBCs, haemoglobin, forming bright red oxyhaemoglobin. The RBCs then travel around the body in the blood and gives oxygen to the other cells of the body.
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The haemoglobin decomposes into iron and a greenish pigment known as biliverdin. The iron is recycled and used in erythropoiesis, while some biliverdin is converted to orange bilirubin in the liver. Both of these are excreted as bile pigments. Even though iron is reusable, it must still be included in a healthy diet. Along with iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid are required for DNA synthesis, and vitamin C is required for iron absorption.

Neurons or Nerve Cells are cells specialized for transmitting information throughout the body, chemically and electrically. There are three main types of neurons; sensory neurons that communicate information from sensory receptors to the central nervous system (CNS – brain and spinal chord), motor neurons that transmit signals between the CNS and muscles, and interneurons responsible for transmitting information between different neurons.
Even though these neurons have their specific purposes, they all have very similar structures. They all have dendrites, a cell body, an axon, and terminal buttons. Dendrites are branch-like structures that protrude from the cell body and therefore increase the surface area of the cell body. This maximizes the amount of information the dendrites can receive from other neuron and consequently transfer to the cell body.
Within the cell body, these impulses are transmitted to the soma, which then passes them along to the axon hillock. When the neuron is not transmitting information it

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