Essay The Civil Rights Issue

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The issue of Civil Rights has been an ongoing debate in the history of American Politics. The United States of America has attempted twice to reconstruct America’s laws regarding civil rights, specifically for African Americans. The first reconstruction that occurred from 1865 to 1877 introduced the rights of African Americans, such as the right to vote, but it failed to end discrimination. The second reconstruction of the 1950’s was more successful in ending discrimination than the first because a unified government allowed laws to pass with much ease, there was more support for reform from both the citizens and government officials and enforcement was key to see to it that the laws were being implemented
As opposed to the first
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Board of Education that ended discrimination in public schools.
There was also coordination not only between Congress and the President, but also with the judicial branch as well. The supreme court under Chief Earl Warren, supported civil rights act as seen when the court, overturned Plessy v. Ferguson that stated that separate but equal, was constitutional with Brown v. Board of Education. In response to court’s decision, Congress passed the 1964 Civil Rights act, that called to an end of segregation in public schools and public accommodations, which strengthened and reinforced the court’s ruling. Because all branches of government were able to act collectively it allowed the transaction costs of bills passing to go down, and enabled the federal government to put their focus on other areas such as enforcement, which was needed in order to put worth in the laws that they passed.
Collective action was not only practiced by the national government but also by citizens that made the second reconstruction successful. Hundreds of citizens ranging from students to working professionals, all came together under groups such as the NAACP and SCLC to publicize the need for a civil rights movement, and take matters into their own hand in areas where Congress failed to act. These groups were successful in reforming laws, by challenging court cases such as Plessy v. Ferguson and overturned the

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