The MMM Middle-Range Theory and How it should be Implemented in Nursing

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Physical activity has been linked to decreasing the risk of developing breast and colon cancers, cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, depression, and risk of falls (World Health Organization, 2013). The World Health Organization has outlined a generic thirty minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity five times per week as a standard for acquiring health benefits (2013). Unfortunately, the majority of the population does not attain these minimum physical activity requirements (Johnson & Taylor, 2011). Nowadays, physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for mortality in the world (World Health Organization, 2013). Effective strategies to improve the participation in physical activity are desperately needed …show more content…
These patients chose to shift their thoughts to more positive outlooks rather than look at their debilitations and confinement with the disease (Jonas-Simpson & Mitchell, 2005). Another study tested music therapy on mood and social interaction in Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke patients and found a positive effect on mood, showing decreased depression and less anxiety with the use of musical intervention (Nayak et al., 2000). Music is full of emotional associations and provides an effective medium for evoking mood changes (Nayak et al., 2000).
Music can also alter mood as a type of auditory distraction by helping a person pay less attention to an unpleasant stimulus (Murrock & Higgins, 2009). Pain can lead to a stress response of releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine, which will result in altering heart rate, blood pressure, and respirations (Nayak et al., 2000). Having music as a distractor (listening to calming music) can negate these effects by releasing beta-endorphins as a natural pain reliever (Murrock & Higgins, 2009).
Another way music alters mood is through encouraging social interaction (Nayak et al., 2000). Music allows for self-expression and communication of feelings and group identity (Murrock & Higgins, 2009). Those with Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke found positive effects of musical

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