The Most Important Issues on Organisational Change in Literature in the Last Three Decades

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According to Johnson et al. (2006) strategy is ‘the direction and scope of an organisation over the long term, which achieves advantage for the organisation through its configuration of resources within a changing environment, to meet the needs of markets and fulfil stakeholders’ expectations’. With always more dynamic and complex environmental conditions, strategies are constantly changing and need to be tailored to different contexts, situations and contingencies. For this reason the effective management of changes is fundamental for the survival and success of the organisation and different approaches and means of managing change are necessary for different types of change.
This brief literature synthesis will first
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(2006) define four types of strategic changes:
• adaptation, changes occurring incrementally within the current paradigm of the organisation;
• reconstruction, rapid and sudden changes that do not fundamentally change the paradigm of the organisation;
• evolution, is a change in strategy that requires paradigm change, but over time; and
• revolution, requiring rapid and major strategic and paradigm change.
Other more contextual factors related to the organisational external and internal environment can play an important role in the process of strategic change such as the time available for the change, the need of preservation of certain aspects of the organisation, the degree of homogeneity or diversity in the organisation, the capability, capacity and readiness for change and the power to make change happen (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 1999).
Several models have been developed in the literature in order to monitor and better understand the actions undertaken during the change process such as the Judson (1991) model of 5 phases or the Kotter (1995) model made of eight steps as described in Armenakis (1999). Practitioners often use a combination of these models in order to avoid symptoms of denial or resistance from the staff.
The Transition Curve
A tool that can help to understand and monitor the change process is the Transition Curve as described by Gingerella (1993). The model highlights that the process of change can go through

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